Most 2200 customers upgraded to the 2200 cs, after which Wang never again developed or marketed any new 2200 products. In 1997, wang reported having about two hundred 2200 systems still under maintenance around the world. Throughout, wang had always offered internet maintenance services for the 2200. The 2200 Basic2 language was ported to be compiled and run on non-Wang hardware and operating systems by at least two companies. Niakwa Inc 12 created a product named npl (originally named Basic-2C). Kerridge computer 13 (now a part of adp ) created a product named kcml. Both products support dos, windows and various Unix systems. The basic2 language has been substantially enhanced and extended by both companies to meet modern needs.
The disk subsystems could be attached to up to 15 computers giving a theoretical upper limit of 240 workstations in a single cluster. Unlike the other product lines such as the vs and ois (both described below add wang aggressively used value added resellers (VARs) to customize and market 2200 systems. One such creative solution deployed dozens of 2200 systems and was developed in conjunction with Hawaii - and Hong Kong -based firm, Algorithms, Inc. It provided paging (beeper) services for much of the hong Kong market in the early 1980s. Overshadowed by the wang vs, the 2200 languished as a cost-effective, but forgotten solution in the hands of the customers who had. In the late 1980s Wang revisited the 2200 series one last time, offering 2200 customers a new 2200 cs with bundled maintenance for less than customers were then paying just for maintenance of their aging 2200s. The 2200 cs was accompanied by an Intel 386 processor, updated disk units and other peripherals.
The systems were user-friendly and fairly easy to administer, with the latter task often performed by office personnel, in an era when most machines required trained administrators. Early computer models edit wang 2200 edit main article: Wang 2200 On its journey from calculators and word processing to serious data processing Wang developed and marketed several lines of small computer system, some of which were wordProcessing-based and some of which were dataProcessing-based. Instead of a clear, linear progression, the product lines overlapped and in some cases borrowed technology from each other. The most identifiable wang minicomputer performing recognizable data processing was the wang 2200 which appeared in may 1973. Unlike some other desktop computers such as the hp 9830, it had a crt in a cabinet that also included an integrated computer controlled cassette tape storage unit and keyboard. Microcoded to run interpretive basic, about 65,000 systems were shipped in its lifetime and it found wide use in small and medium-size businesses worldwide. The original 2200 was a single user system. The improved vp model increased performance more than tenfold and enhanced the language (renamed Basic-2 ). The 2200 vp evolved into a desktop computer and larger mvp system to support up to 16 workstations and utilized commercial disk technologies that appeared in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
1200 Word, research, paper, on Global Warming Free essays
A 2002 Boston Globe article refers to koplow as a "wisecracking rebel" who "was waiting for dismissal when, in 1975, he developed the product that made computers popularly accessible." In Koplow's words, "Dr. Wang kicked me out of marketing. I, along with dave moros was relegated to long Range Planning — 'lrped'. Was tantamount to being fired: 'here is a temporary job until you find another one in some other company. Although he and shakespeare Moros were told to design a word processing machine, they were given no resources. Citation needed They perceived the assignment as busywork. They went ahead anyway, wrote the manual, and convinced An Wang to turn it into a real project.
The word processing machine the wang 1200 wps was introduced in June 1976 and was an instant success, as was its successor, the 1977 Wang ois 10 (Office Information System). These products were technological breakthroughs. They were multi-user systems. Each workstation looked like a typical terminal, but contained its own Intel 8080 microprocessor (later versions used a z80 ) and 64 kb of ram (comparable, but lower in power than the original ibm pc which came out in 1981). Disk storage was centralized in a master unit and shared by the workstations, and connection was via high-speed dual coaxial cable "928 Link". 11 Multiple ois masters could be networked to each other, allowing file sharing among hundreds of users.
The calculator was right, the printed tables were wrong, and the company's reputation was made. In the early seventies, wang believed that calculators would become unprofitable low-margin commodities, and decided to exit the calculator business. Word processors edit The wang 1200 edit wang's first attempt at a word processor was the wang 1200, announced in late 1971, but not available until 1972. The design consisted of the logic of a wang 500 calculator hooked up to an oem-manufactured ibm selectric typewriter for keying and printing, and dual cassette decks for storage. Harold Koplow, who had written the microcode for the wang 700 (and its derivative, the wang 500) rewrote the microcode to perform word processing functions instead of number crunching.
The operator of a wang 1200 typed text on a conventional ibm selectric keyboard; when the return key was pressed, the line of text was stored on a cassette tape. One cassette held roughly 20 pages of text, and could be "played back" (e.g., the text retrieved) by printing the contents on continuous-form paper in the 1200 typewriter's "print" mode. The stored text could also be edited, using keys on a simple, six-key array. Basic editing functions included Insert, delete, skip (character, line and. The labor and cost savings of this device were immediate, and remarkable: pages of text no longer had to be retyped to correct simple errors, and projects could be worked on, stored, and then retrieved for use later. The rudimentary wang 1200 machine was the precursor of the wang Office Information System (ois which revolutionized the way typing projects were performed in the American workplace. Wang ois edit following the wang 1200, harold Koplow and david Moros made another attempt at designing a word processor. They started by first writing the user's manual for the product.
How long is a 1200 word essay
7 The electronics included 1,275 discrete transistors. It actually performed multiplication by adding logarithms, and internet roundoff in the display conversion was noticeable: 2 times 2 yielded.999999999. From 1965 to about 1971, wang was a well-regarded calculator company. Wang calculators cost in the mid-four-figures, 8 used Nixie tube readouts, performed transcendental functions, had varying degrees of shakespeare programmability, and exploited magnetic core memory. The 200 and 300 calculator models were available as timeshared simultaneous (SE) packages that 9 had a central processing unit (the size of a small suitcase) connected by cables leading to four individual desktop display/keyboard units. Competition included hp, which introduced the hp 9100A in 1968, and old-line calculator companies such as Monroe and Marchant. Wang calculators were at first sold to scientists and engineers, but the company later won a solid niche in financial-services industries, which had previously relied on complicated printed tables for mortgages and annuities. One perhaps apocryphal story tells of a banker who spot-checked a wang calculator against a mortgage table and found a discrepancy.
It was an electronic special purpose computer, designed to justify papertape for use on automated. It was developed under contract. Compugraphic, who manufactured phototypesetters. Compugraphic retained the rights to manufacture the linasec without royalty. They exercised these rights, effectively forcing Wang out of the market. Calculators reporting edit The wang loci-2 4 Logarithmic Computing Instrument desktop calculator 5 (the earlier loci-1 6 in September 1964 was not a real product) was introduced in January 1965. Using factor combining it was probably the first desktop calculator capable of computing logarithms, quite an achievement for a machine without any integrated circuits.
edit, an Wang took steps to ensure that the wang family would retain control of the company even after going public. He created a second class of stock, class b, with higher dividends, but only one-tenth the voting power of class. The public mostly bought class B shares; the wang family retained most of the class C shares. (The letters b and C were used to ensure that brokerages would fill any wang stock orders with class B shares unless class C was specifically requested). Wang stock had been listed in the. New York Stock Exchange, but this maneuver was not quite acceptable under nyse's rules, and Wang was forced to delist with nyse and relist on the more liberal. Products edit, typesetters edit, the company's first major project was the.
An Wang and. The company was successively headquartered. Cambridge, massachusetts (19541963 tewksbury, massachusetts (19631976 and finally in, lowell, massachusetts (19761997). At its peak in the 1980s, wang Laboratories had annual revenues of 3 billion and employed over 33,000 people. It was one of the leading companies during the time of the. 1, the company was directed by An Wang, who was described as an "indispensable leader" and played a personal role in setting business and product strategy until his death in 1990. Under his direction, the company went through several distinct transitions between different product lines. 2, wang Laboratories filed for bankruptcy protection in August 1992. 3, after emerging from bankruptcy, the company eventually changed its name to wang Global.
Isb essays 2017 (2018 intake / Class of 2019) - mba admissions
Beneficial ownership commonly refers to two situations:. Securities law, a beneficial owner enjoys either sole or shared power regarding voting rights in a stock. According to the sec, this right extends to include stock or securities owned by one person even if the title is held by another person or entity. Beneficial ownership can also refer to a situation where an individual or entity holds the right of ownership even if the stock is registered with another entity, such as a brokerage house. In this case, while the brokerage firm is actually shown as the holder of the security, the investor is the beneficial owner. For example, bob buys 100 shares of stock in Company abc essay via a brokerage house. Even though the stock is recorded under the broker 's name, bob is the beneficial owner. 1970, wang Laboratories was a computer company founded in 1951,.