Problem formulation - hippie which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues? Literature search - finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. Data evaluation - determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. Analysis and interpretation - discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Clarify, if your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions:. . roughly how many sources should i include? What types of sources should I review (books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources)? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Should i evaluate the sources?
Methodology - were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to addressing the research problem? Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Objectivity - is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? Persuasiveness - which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing? Value - are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject? development of the literature review.
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Users' guides to the medical literature (3rd.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education Medical. (This is a foundational textbook on evidence-based medicine and of particular use to the reviewer who wants to learn about the different types of published research article. "what is a case report?" and to understand what types of study design best answer what types of clinical question). Journal articles describing systematic review methods can be searched for in PubMed using this search string in the PubMed search box: sysrev_methods. A list of systematic review methods is on the National Library of Medicine's PubMed health website.
Thinking About your Literature review. The pdf structure of a literature review should include the following : An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, division of works under review into themes or categories. Works that support a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative approaches entirely, an explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others, writing conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing. The critical evaluation of each work should consider : Provenance - what are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence. Primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings?
Brown,., Upchurch,., acton,. A framework for developing a coding scheme for meta-analysis. Western journal Of Nursing Research, 25(2 205-222. (This article describes the process of how to design a coded data extraction form and codebook, table 1 is an example of a coded data extraction form that can then be used to program a fillable form in Adobe Acrobat or Microsoft Access). N., bassler,., Briel,., Alonso-coello,., karanicolas,. Choice of data extraction tools for systematic reviews depends on resources and review complexity.
Journal Of Clinical Epidemiology, 62 (5 506-510. (This article offers advice on how to decide what tools to use to extract data for analytical systematic reviews). Studying a study and Testing a test: reading evidence-based health Research, 6th Edition. . Lippincott Williams wilkins, 2012. (Textbook of quantitative statistical methods used in health sciences research). M Rathbone,., Hoffmann,., Glasziou,. Faster title and abstract screening? Evaluating Abstrackr, a semi-automated online screening program for systematic reviewers. Doi:10.1186/s guyatt,., rennie,., meade,., cook,.
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How to write, publish, present in the health sciences : a guide for clinicians laboratory researchers. Philadelphia : American College of plan Physicians. (This book chapter has a helpful bibliography on systematic review and meta-analysis methods). Brown,., martin,., garcia,., winter,., garcía,., Brown,., cuevas., sumlin,. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar. Computers, Informatics, nursing: cin, 31(6 257-265. (This article advocates for the programming of electronic fillable forms in Adobe homework Acrobat Pro to feed data into Excel or spss for analysis, and to use cloud based file sharing systems such as Blackboard, refWorks, or everNote to facilitate sharing knowledge about the decision-making process. Of particular note are the flowchart describing this process, and their example screening form used for the initial screening of abstracts).
Oxford Centre for evidence based Medicine: levels of evidence. (Another commonly used criteria for grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations, developed in part by ebm guru david Sackett.). Health Sciences Literature review Made easy: The matrix Method (2nd.). . Sudbury, ma: Jones bartlett Publishers. (Textbook of health sciences literature search methods). Between the lines: Finding the truth in medical literature. Goshen, ma: evimed Research Press. (Concise book on foundational concepts of evidence-based medicine). The value of Systematic reviews as Research Activities in Medical global Education.
is the nlm's. Research Reporting guidelines and Initiatives. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, development and evaluation (grade). (An international group of acadmics/clinicians working to promote a common approach to grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.). Phillips,., ball,., sackett,.,.
(British systematic review guidelines). Agency for health Research quality (ahrq) (2013). Methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews. . Comparative effectiveness review guidelines patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (pcori) (2013). The pcori methodology report. (A 47-item methodology checklist for. Established under the patient Protection and Affordable care Act, pcori funds the development of guidance on the comparative effectivess of clinical healthcare, similar to the uk national Institute for Clinical evidence but without reporting cost-effectiveness qaly metrics). World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Systematic Literature review Manual.
Literature review of Data validation Methods - prepared
A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information libraries journal, 26(2 91-108. (Describes world 14 different types of literature and systematic review, useful for thinking at the outset about what sort of literature review you want.). Finding What Works in health Care: Standards for Systematic reviews. Washington, dc: National Academies (U.S. Institute of Medicine systematic review guidelines). Cochrane handbook of Systematic reviews of Interventions.1.0 (March 2011) (International Cochrane collaboration systematic review guidelines). Center for reviews and Dissemination (University of York, england) (2009). Systematic reviews: crd's guidance for undertaking systematic reviews in health care.