Early english writing

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79 In the seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure john seigenthaler in may 2005. Seigenthaler was falsely presented as a suspect in the assassination of John. 79 The article remained uncorrected for four months. 79 seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of usa today and founder of the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called wikipedia co-founder Jimmy wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales replied that he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced. 80 81 After the incident, seigenthaler described wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool". 79 This incident led to policy changes at wikipedia, specifically targeted at tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.

"New pages patrol" is a process whereby newly created articles are checked for obvious problems. 73 In 2003, economics PhD student Andrea ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki create a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favor "creative construction" over "creative destruction". 74 Vandalism main article: Vandalism on wikipedia any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises the integrity of wikipedia is considered vandalism. The global most common and obvious types of vandalism bags include additions of obscenities and crude humor. Vandalism can also include advertising and other types of spam. 75 Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information to an article, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the underlying code of an article, or use images disruptively. 76 Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix vandalism is a few minutes. 77 78 However, some vandalism takes much longer to repair.

early english writing

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For example, the german wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles, 69 which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or shakespeare vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published. 71 The editing interface of wikipedia review of changes Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers wikipedia provides certain tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. The "History" page of each article links to each revision. Notes 6 72 On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's history page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of any changes.

early english writing

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63 It started almost entirely open—anyone could create articles, and any wikipedia article could be edited by any reader, even those who did not have a wikipedia account. Modifications to all articles would be published immediately. As a result, any article could contain inaccuracies such as errors, ideological biases, and nonsensical or irrelevant text. Restrictions due to the increasing popularity of wikipedia, popular editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions in some cases. For instance, on the English wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article. 64 On the English wikipedia, among others, some particularly controversial, sensitive and/or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to some degree. 65 66 A frequently vandalized article can be semi-protected or extended confirmed protected, meaning that only autoconfirmed or extended confirmed editors are able to modify. 67 A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators are able to make changes. 68 In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions.

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early english writing

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This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when the rank was number 33, with wikipedia receiving around.3 million unique visitors. 52 As of March 2015, wikipedia has rank 5 6 53 among websites in terms of popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received 8 billion pageviews every month. 54 On February 9, 2014, The new York times reported that wikipedia has 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore." biography 15 On January 18, 2012, the English wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated. More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced wikipedia content. 56 57 The wikipedia page on December 17, 2001.

Loveland and reagle argue that, in process, wikipedia follows anesthetist a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that accumulated improvements piecemeal through " stigmergic accumulation". 58 59 On January 20, 2014, subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had wikipedia's growth flattened but that it has "lost nearly 10 per cent of its page-views last year. That's a decline of about 2 billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English wikipedia declined by 12 per cent, those of German version slid by 17 per cent and the japanese version lost 9 per cent." Varma added that, "While wikipedia's managers think that this could. 61 Openness Number of English wikipedia articles 62 wikipedia editors with 100 edits per month 62 Differences between versions of an article are highlighted as shown Unlike traditional encyclopedias, wikipedia follows the procrastination principle notes 5 63 regarding the security of its content.

38 Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800. 39 A team at the palo Alto research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. 40 Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called " low-hanging fruit "—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively. In november 2009, a researcher at the rey juan Carlos University in Madrid ( Spain ) found that the English wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period. 44 45 The wall Street journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.

46 Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. 47 Two years later, in 2011, wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,8In the same interview, wales also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable". 48 A 2013 article titled "The decline of wikipedia" in mit's Technology review questioned this claim. The article revealed that since 2007, wikipedia had lost a third of the volunteer editors who update and correct the online encyclopedia and those still there have focused increasingly on minutiae., the Atlantic reported that the number of administrators is also in decline. 50 In the november 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, katherine ward stated "wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis". 51 wikipedia blackout protest against sopa on January 18, 2012 A promotional video of the wikimedia foundation that encourages viewers to edit wikipedia, mostly reviewing 2014 via wikipedia content Milestones In January 2007, wikipedia entered for the first time the top-ten list of the most. S., according to comScore networks. With.9 million unique visitors, wikipedia was ranked number 9, surpassing The new York times 10) and Apple 11).

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Otherwise, there were relatively few rules initially and wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. 27 Originally, bomis intended to make wikipedia a business for wood profit. 33 wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. 34 Nupedia and wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into wikipedia. The English wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for almost 600 years. 35 Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in wikipedia, users of the Spanish wikipedia forked from wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia libre in February 2002. 36 These moves encouraged Wales to announce that wikipedia would not display advertisements, and to change wikipedia's domain from m to wikipedia. 37 Though the English wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.

early english writing

22 Contents History main article: History of wikipedia jimmy wales and Larry sanger Nupedia wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before wikipedia, but none were as the successful. 23 wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. 10 It was founded on March 9, 2000 under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were bomis ceo jimmy wales and Larry sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later wikipedia. 24 25 Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia open Content License, but even before wikipedia was founded, nupedia switched to the gnu free documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. 26 Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, 27 28 while sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. 29 On January 10, 2001, sanger proposed on the nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia. 30 launch and early growth wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at m, 31 and announced by sanger on the nupedia mailing list. 27 wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" 32 was codified in its first months.

million unique visitors each month as of February 2014. 15 As of March 2017, wikipedia has about 40,000 featured Articles and good Articles that cover vital topics. 16 In 2005, nature published a peer review comparing 42 science articles from Encyclopædia britannica and wikipedia and found that wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Encyclopædia britannica. 18 Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made wikipedia the biggest and possibly the best encyclopedia in the world and it was testament to the vision of Jimmy wales. 19 wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, and some falsehoods 20 and for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. 21 In 2017, facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to wikipedia articles. Youtube announced a similar plan in 2018. In response, the washington Post headlined, "wikipedia, the good cop of the Internet".

It is the largest movie and most popular general reference work on the Internet, 3 4 5 and is one of the most popular websites. 6, it is owned and supported by the. Wikimedia foundation, a non-profit organization which operates on money it receives from donors. 7 8 9, wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001. Jimmy wales and, larry sanger. 10, sanger coined its name, 11 12 a blend of wiki notes 3 and encyclo pedia. Initially an English-language encyclopedia, versions in other languages were quickly developed.

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Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit. This article is about the online encyclopedia. For wikipedia's home page, see. For wikipedia's visitor introduction, see. For other uses, see, wikipedia paperless (disambiguation). "The Free encyclopedia" redirects here. For other encyclopedias, see. Wikipedia ( /wɪkɪpidiə/ ( listen /wɪkipidiə/ ( listen wik-ih-pee-dee-ə ) is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.

early english writing
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By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included. writers to provide insight, guidance and clarity about key issues affecting early years practitioners and primary English teachers.

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  1. peaked around early 2007.38 Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800. The yoke of Latin grammar writing bore down oppressively on much of the early history of English grammars. sometimes very distorted, which seem to indicate the existence of an early cursive writing from which they would have been borrowed.

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